JUDUL SKRIPSI BAHASA INGGRIS DAN PTK DI SMK SIERE CENDEKIA
CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

A. Background of the Problem
English is one of the international languages that is used by many people in the world and in many areas of everyday life. Therefore, using English is the easiest way to communicate with people from other countries about many aspects in human life such as technology, economy, social, and politics.
For Indonesia, English is a foreign language. Learning a foreign language is an integrated process that the learner should study the four basic skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing. We use it to understand our world through listening and reading and to communicate our feeling, need, and desires through speaking and writing. By having more knowledge about language skill we have much better chance of understanding and being understood and getting what we want and need from these around us.
Speaking is one of four basic skills. It is very important in teaching and learning English. Speaking involves some language components (spelling, pronounciation, vocabulary, and punctuation). This is in line with what is stated by Braine and Claire May (1996:60), writing clear sentences requires you to learn the rules of English grammar and mechanics such as the correct use of verbs and pronouns, as well as commas and other marks of punctuation.
There are various ways to organize the sentences in a piece of speaking. One of them is three-step interview. three-step interview is an effective way to encourage students to share their thinking, ask questions, and take notes. It works best with three students per group, but it can be modified for groups of four.
Based on my experiences, there are some problems found in the field when giving writing materials to the students, especially the recount text.
The first problem is that the students’ writing is not comprehensible, because the content of the composition is not relevant to the topic, the ideas are not clearly stated, the ideas and sentences are not well organized. The second problem is that there are many errors in vocabulary, grammar, and spelling.
Another problem is the students have low motivation and are not interested in doing the task since the writing activities are not interesting. Usually, the students are asked to write sentences and paragraphs without being given some clue so that it is difficult for them to express their ideas on a piece of paper.
Besides that, the students have difficulty at telling their experience. This is because writing is difficult for them since they have to master enough vocabulary, spelling, and grammar.
In reference to the explanations above and the strong desire of finding the solution of these problems, the writer has motivation to do the research in improving the teaching of writing in real class by using picture series as the instructional media. It is hoped that the media improve the students’ ability in writing, especially recount text.

B. Research Problem
In this research, the writer tries to describe the students’ ability in writing the recount text through using picture series. So, the problem is formulated as follows:
How does the teacher use picture series to improve the students’ ability in writing the recount text of the class VIIIC students of SMPN Bati-Bati in academic year 2008/2009?
C. Objective
Based on the problem formulation above, the objective of the research is to find the appropriate way in using picture series to improve the students’ ability in recount text of the class VIIIC students of SMPN Bati-Bati in academic year 2008/2009.

D. Significances
The study is expected to have both academic and practical contributions.
1. Academically, to help teacher/researcher to find out the alternative way of teaching writing, especially recount and to produce the relevant and valid knowledge for their class to improve their teaching.
2. Practically, it can be used as a model to improve the students’ ability in writing recount text, and it may guide, help and encourage students to express their ideas, opinion, and thought onto paper.

E. Scope
1. This research will be conducted\in order to find a good way to improve the students’ writing skill.
2. This research is focused on the teaching of recount text by using picture series as the instructional media.

F. Operational Definition
1. Using picture series is one of the instructional media in the teaching and learning process to attract the students’ attention and deliver information.
2. Writing ability is a productive skill beside speaking, to write simple sentence, message, and announcement and to write text in the forms of narrative, recount, and descriptive, and to write simple messages and personal letters for SMP students in the first and the second years.
3. Recount text is text that tells the students’ own experiences. It can also be found in personal letter, biography, and history.

G. Subject
The subjects of the study are the students of class VIIIC of SMPN Bati-Bati academic year 2008/2009 which consists of 36 students.

CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

A. The Nature of Writing
According to J.D Angelo (1989:5), writing is a form of thinking. It means that writing is an activity to express ideas, issues, events, feeling or thinking to the others through written form. Cohen and Reil in Kusumaningsih(2001:1) say that writing can be defined as communicate act, a way of sharing observation, thought, or ideas with ourselves and others. It is a tool of thinking. By writing we can tell about people, remember the facts and ideas.
Based on the statement above, it can be concluded that writing is expressing ideas, facts, feeling, experience, and thought in written form.
In writing, the aspects include the use of vocabulary, structure of the sentence, composition of the sentence, spelling, and punctuation. These aspects are important to master in order to be able to produce good writing.
Writing, one of the productive skills, is considered difficult, especially writing in a foreign language. According to Axelord and cooper in Ma’mun (2004:5), writing is a complex process and such contains element of mastery and surprise. When students want to write something they should have a lot of information, ideas, and thought in their mind so that they will be able to express them into sentences, paragraphs, and an essay.
The writing ability is the main activity of composition. The writing should be systematic and detail. A knowledge or study about good writing or how to write composition is much needed.

B. The Teaching of Writing for SMP Students
According to English Syllabus of School Unit Level Curriculum (KTSP), the teaching of writing for SMP students involves the teaching of paragraphs or text. The texts advocated are: recount, narrative, descriptive, procedure and report.
Recount text is a kind of text that is usually found or presented in journals, diary, personal letter, biography, travel report, police report, sport report, history, etc. The main elements of recount are orientation, list of events, and reorientation. In the orientation step the writer mentions people and things that are involved, time of the event, the place, and the situation. In the list of events, the writer tells the events happen chronologically. In the reorientation, the writer concludes the story by giving comments.
Narrative text is a kind of text that tells a story. It is developed in some steps: orientation, complication, resolution, evaluation, and reorientation. In the step of orientation, the writer tells the characters in the story, their names and the place they live, their ages, their condition, and their willing. In the complication step, the writer presents the unexpected event that happens to the characters. In the resolution step, the writer tells how the complication is solved. In the evaluation step, the writer invites the reader to think what meaning or values that are taken from the story. In the reorientation step, the writer concludes the story by giving comments.
Descriptive text is a kind of text to describe something, people, or objects. Procedure text is a kind of text that tells a procedure of making something. Meanwhile, report text is a kind of text to report an event, things in the world, animals, and flora.
In this study, the focus is only to recount text, since this kind of text becomes problems for the students and it needs to be solved immediately. The strategy applied to improve the students ability in writing recount text is pyramid planning strategy.

C. Pictures Series
Students can construct their knowledge during learning recount text easily by using media. One of the media is picture series which draws a story. This medium fulfills the principles of using media issued by Nyoman S.Degeng (2001). Media which can be used to make the students learn more easily and the teacher teaches easily is the main part of the learning process. The media must be used in integrated way in teaching and learning and not only as ice breaker of teaching and learning.
To understand the way of the picture series, the students need to appreciate it in abstract way. In the same way, when they express their ideas to construct the story in a good coherence as well as unity, they have to think it in abstract way too. Both of them will be easier for them in learning process if the teacher can use picture series. It can not only help the students to get ideas more realistic in understanding the recount text but also in constructing ideas to create it.
During the students are writing the text, they can use top-down technique in predicting the content of the text based on understanding of picture series (Brown, 2004:217). They can predict the content of the text easily based on their understanding about the picture series. The pictures give the schemata to the students to construct ideas from their background knowledge and experience.

CHAPTER III
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

A. Setting and Subject of the Study
This classroom action research is focused on the students of class VIIIC SMPN 1 Bati-Bati Kabupaten Tanah Laut in the first semester of 2008/2009. The number of the students in this class is 36 students.
The students are taken as the subject of the study since they have poor ability in writing recount text.

B. Research Preparation
This research focuses on the positive effect using picture series as the media to improve the students’ competence to understand the generic structures of recount text as well as its language features. The writer also hopes that her students are able to design a text of recount orally after the process of teaching.
The steps of research preparations are as follows:
1. Arranging a schedule classroom action research
2. Designing a lesson planning
3. Preparing some students ‘worksheets
4. Preparing some pieces of picture series as the media
5. Preparing the jumbled stories based on the picture series
6. Preparing the students’ questionnaires
7. Preparing a form on assessment

C. Cycles
There are two cycles in this classroom action research. Each cycle consists of planning, acting, observing, and reflecting. Both cycles focus on the oral cycle of recount learning process. Each oral cycle needs 3 meetings.
One meeting is for building knowledge of the field (BKOF), and modeling of text (MOT). One more meeting is for joint construction of text (JCOT), and another one is for individual construction of text (ICOT). So, the two cycles of the action research need 5 meetings.

D. Instrument
The instrument used to collect the data is test and observation sheets. The test is used to know the students’ ability in writing recount text. Meanwhile, the observation sheets are used:
1. to assess the students during the learning process.
2. to check the students’ understanding about picture series.
3. to check the students’ understanding about the generic structure and the language structure and the language features of the recount text.
4. to enable the students to retell the picture series orally
5. to enable the students to design a text of recount orally
6. to check the students’ attitude to take part in the learning process of recount by using picture series as the media of teaching.

E. Research Plan
The research will be done in three months from October to December 2008. The plan can be seen in the following schedule.

No
Activities Months
October November December
1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
1

2.

3.

Preparation
a. Proposal
b. Lesson plan
c. Instrument

Implementation

a. cycle 1
b. Cycle 1 analysis
c. cycle 2
d. cycle 2 analysis

Report

a. Drafting
b. writing report
c. submitting report

CHAPTER IV
RESULT OF THE RESEARCH

A. The Implementation of Cycle 1
Before implementing cycle 1, the researcher administered pre-test by asking the students to write recount text. The result of the test indicates that most students can not write the recount text. Based on the observation and interview to the students, the problem is that they are difficult to find idea to write.
In cycle 1 the researcher presented the recount text by using picture series. First of all, the students are given some pictures with incomplete sentence. Based on the pictures the students complete the sentences. After that, the students are given some pictures without any clue. The students write their own sentences based on their understanding about the pictures.
When the students were making their writing, the writer observed the students activities. It is done to know the students motivation and their activeness in doing the task as influence of the use of picture series media. In this activity, the researcher wrote the students’ development happened during the observation.
The result of the implementation of cycle 1 shows that the students’ writing ability is improved, but it has not achieved the criteria of success. The minimal standard criteria of the students’ writing ability are when the mean score of all the students is 7.00. The result reveals that the mean score of the students is only 65.55. It means that the study has not been successful yet.

The students’ scores for the first cycle can be seen in the following table.
No Names Score
1 Aminah 70
2. Arbainah 60
3. Azizah 65
4. Basman 65
5. Dewi 70
6. Dian Fajar Wati 60
7. Desi Jakal Kuswinarni 60
8. Fathurrahman 60
9. Ganang Hadi Prasetyo 65
10. Hamdah 60
11. Imam Muslim 65
12 Intan Sari 70
13. Junaidi 60
14. Khairul Rohayatin 70
15. Madinatul Munawaroh 70
16. Majeri 60
17 M. Noor Ansori 75
18 Milawati 70
19. M. Yudi 65
20 Naimah 70

No Names Score
21 Nasrul 60
22 Novi Arianto 60
23. Norbaiti 65
24. Normalinda 65
25. Only Crist Pangky 75
26. Rahman 65
27. Rahmawati 65
28. Raihanah 65
29. Riki Purnamasari 70
30 Rizal 60
31 Riska Arianti 65
32. Rofika 70
33. Sabaniah 60
34. Sariwati 70
35. Siti Fatimah 70
36. Yuliana 65
Total 2360
Mean 65.55

B. Reflection for Cycle 1
Based on the data presented in the table above, it can be stated that the implementation of using picture media to improve the students’ ability in writing recount text is not successful yet. The criterion of success is if the mean score of the students is at least 7.00 and the students are active in the writing activity.
In terms of the students’ activeness in writing activity, the result of observation shows that some students are active, but some others are not active in the writing activity. They look still confused in finding the idea to write in a piece of paper.
Although some students show their improvement in writing motivation and score of writing, the cycle 2 needs to be conducted. This is done because some students get score under the standard which is determined. Many students get score below 7.00. The cycle 2 is done to find the appropriate strategy in improving students’ writing ability in recount text using picture series media.

C. The Implementation of Cycle 2
In cycle 1, the researcher used picture series in presenting the recount text to the students. The result shows that some students get improvements in their scores and in their activeness in writing activity, but some others are still under the target or the criteria.
In cycle 2, the researcher still used picture series in presenting recount text. But in this cycle, the strategy used is different from the strategy applied in cycle 1. The strategy applied is the researcher gave more examples of how to write recount text using picture series. After the students understand and have confident, the researcher gave them again picture series, and the students write their own writing based on the pictures.
The result of observation shows that most students are very active and serious doing their tasks. Before the time given is over, all students submitted their writing. When they were interviewed, they stated that they understood how to make recount text the help of the picture series and the researcher’s explanation. By paying attention to the examples the researcher presented and the explanation, the students are easier to make their own writing. Besides that, the students not only can write the text but also mention the components of recount text and explained the function of each the component.
The result of the test can be seen in the following table.

No Names Score
1 Aminah 75
2. Arbainah 70
3. Azizah 70
4. Basman 70
5. Dewi 75
6. Dian Fajar Wati 70
7. Desi Jakal Kuswinarni 70
8. Fathurrahman 70
9. Ganang Hadi Prasetyo 70
10. Hamdah 70
11. Imam Muslim 70
12 Intan Sari 75
13. Junaidi 75
14. Khairul Rohayatin 75
15. Madinatul Munawaroh 75
16. Majeri 70
17 M. Noor Ansori 80
18 Milawati 75
19. M. Yudi 70
20 Naimah 75
21 Nasrul 70
22 Novi Arianto 70
23. Norbaiti 70
24. Normalinda 70
25. Only Crist Pangky 75
26. Rahman 70
27. Rahmawati 70
28. Raihanah 65
29. Riki Purnamasari 70
30 Rizal 65
31 Riska Arianti 70
32. Rofika 75
33. Sabaniah 65
34. Sariwati 75
35. Siti Fatimah 75
36. Yuliana 70
Total 2575
Mean 71.52

D. Reflection for Cycle 2
Based on the data on the table above, it is concluded that the students’ ability in writing recount text is improved. The criterion of success is if the mean score of the students is 70.00 or more. The data show that the students’ mean score is 71.52.
In terms of the students’ activeness in writing, it is also improved. In other words, the teaching of recount text using picture series can improve the students’ ability in writing recount text for the students of SMPN 1 Bati-Bati.

CHAPTER V
CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION

A. Conclusion
Based on the description in chapter IV, it is concluded that the use of picture series can improve the students’ writing ability in recount text. The students’ mean score is 71.52. It fulfills the criteria of success which is determined 7.00 or more. In terms of students motivation and activeness, during the teaching and learning process using picture series the students are actively involved and more motivated to write.

B. Suggestions
In reference to the conclusion above, it is suggested that the teacher of junior high school used picture series as an alternative media for teaching English, especially, in the teaching of writing recount text.
For the future researcher, the result of the study can be used as reference to conduct further study about the effectiveness of using picture series media.

REFERENCES
Braine, George and May, Claire. 1992. Writing from Sources. London: Myfield
Company.

Departemen Pendidikan Nasional. 2002. Pembelajaran dan Evaluasi Writing.
Direktorat Sekolah Lanjutan Tingkat Pertama. Direktorat Jenderal
Pendidikan Dasar dan Menengah.

Departemen Pendidikan Nasional. 2002. Pelajaran Bahasa Inggris. Direktorat Sekolah Lanjutan Tingkat Pertama. Direktorat Jenderal
Pendidikan Dasar dan Menengah.

…………………………. Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan (KTSP). 2006. Badan Standar Nasional Pendidikan (BSNP).

Kusumaningsih. 2002. The Teaching of Writing at Secondary School. Banjarmasin: Departemen Pendidikan Nasional

Ma’mun K.N.R. 2005. A Descriptive Study of the Students’ Ability in Writing
Narration at the First Grade of SMUN 1 Tanjung. Unpublished Thesis
Universitas Lambung Mangkurat

sumber diambil dari : SYAIFULLAH EDUCATION INFORMATION CENTER

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